Basketball is a hard and physical sport with a lot of fouls. However, while most offenses are committed by the defense, the offense can also commit them. There are quite a few offensive fouls, and each comes with its own qualifications.
The following article breaks them all down, as well as how they occur, in detail. It will create a better understanding of basketball and provide insight into one of the lesser known aspects of the sport.
Types of faults
Before getting into offensive fouls, it is essential to first understand the fouls as a whole. Fouls are violations that stop play and result in a penalty. They reset the game clock for the infraction, award free throws to the offending player, or give possession to the opposing team.
There are different types of fouls (common, technical, flagrant) and they can occur on both sides of the ball. Common faults, as their name suggests, are the most common.
They occur when a player accidentally fouls another on a shot, drive or rebound. Blocks, shooting fouls, charging, over the back, and illegal screens are all examples of common fouls. They either lead to free throws, stoppage time or free throws.
Technical fouls are fouls that interrupt the spirit of the game (like yelling at a referee or slamming a chair) while flagrant fouls are much more violent versions of common fouls. Both lead to free throws. The fouled team also retains possession of the ball.
Of the three categories above, offensive fouls are almost exclusively common fouls. They don’t usually go beyond that, as most are accidental or the result of good defensive play.
Illegal fees and screens
There are three big offensive fouls, but charges are the most common. This occurs when an offensive player runs over or runs through a correctly placed defensive player who has established space in the field.
To fire a charge, a defender must have their feet fixed, not be in the semi-circle of the restricted area at the bottom of the key, and be square with an oncoming offensive player. The offensive player must then make contact with the defender by crossing him.
If these three criteria are met, the offensive player receives a charge.
Beyond a charge, players can set illegal screens. This can happen in two ways. First, an offensive player moves towards a defender after establishing a position for their screen. This includes walking into a defender while they are running or never being placed in the first place.
The other way an illegal screen occurs is if an offensive player places a screen so close to a defensive player that the defensive player has no room to move, or if they have no other choice than to bump into the screen. There must be at least a foot of space.
While the above two offenses have concrete definitions, the third offensive foul (illegal contact) casts a much wider net. Illegal contacts don’t happen that often, but they’re pretty easy to spot.
This foul refers to any situation where an attacking player initiates contact with a defender in order to gain an advantage. Where shooting, reaching, and blocking fouls all occur when the defensive player hits the offensive player, it occurs when the offensive player hits first.
Forms of illegal contact include thrusts, body bumps and shoulder drop. This can happen when an offensive player reaches out and uses their arm to get space, pushes a defender wide during a practice, or simply uses their body to push them out of the way on the block.
All players have a number of contacts they are allowed to work with. Illegal contact occurs when an offensive player goes over the line by blatantly opening up or physically moving the defender out of the way.
Also note that, although rare, offensive fouls can fall into the flagrant category. If an offensive player hits the defender or hits them extremely hard in a way that is not an accusation, the offenses can be turned into something more serious.
Offensive fouls are not as common or as apparent as defensive fouls. Even so, they are still a key part of the game. They are usually the result of effective defending, but also sloppy play. In both situations, they cause a turnover and give the ball to the defense.
As such, they are something to be aware of when playing and something to watch out for when spectating. It’s easy to assume that defense is the only one who can push the limits of the game, but basketball is a little more nuanced than it seems.